Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is in Paris to commemorate the victims of a mass arrest of Jews in Nazi-occupied France in 1942.
More than 13,000 Jews were rounded up and detained at a cycling stadium, the Velodrome d’Hiver, before being deported to Nazi death camps.
Mr Netanyahu will also hold direct talks for the first time with French President Emmanuel Macron.
The visit has drawn consternation from critics of the Israeli PM.
He is attending a commemoration ceremony in Paris on Sunday morning, marking 75 years since the Vel D’Hiv round-up.
Out of the more than 13,000 Jews arrested by French police on 16 and 17 July 1942, about 4,000 were children.
The families were taken to the Velodrome D’Hiver, a cycling stadium near the Eiffel Tower, or an internment camp set up just outside the capital at Drancy.
They were then deported by train, mostly to Auschwitz concentration camp. Fewer than 100 people survived.
The episode remains controversial in France. Marine Le Pen, Mr Macron’s far-right opponent in this year’s election, drew strong criticism on 9 April when she suggested France was not responsible for the tragedy.
Mr Netanyahu’s attendance at the commemoration ceremony has not been welcomed by everyone in France.
Elie Barnav, a former French ambassador to Israel, told AFP news agency: “The presence of Netanyahu makes me a little uneasy.
“This story has nothing to do with Israel.”
The Union of French Jews for Peace (UJFP) described the decision to invite Mr Netanyahu as “shocking” and “unacceptable”.
After the ceremony, Mr Netanyahu will hold talks with Mr Macron, where commentators say he will be probing his French counterpart’s intentions towards the Middle East peace process.
When Mr Macron met Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas in Paris earlier this month, he reiterated France’s support for a two-state solution and opposition to Israel’s building of settlements in occupied territory.
The meeting with Mr Netanyahu comes amid concerns of another increase in violence in the Israel-Palestinian conflict.
Two Israeli policemen were killed and a third wounded by three Israeli Arabs in a gun attack close to the compound in Jerusalem known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as Haram al-Sharif on Friday. The attackers were later killed by security forces.
The holy site was closed after shooting but Israel said it would be reopening on Sunday.
Netanyahu in Paris to commemorate Vel d’Hiv deportation of Jews